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COVID-2019 -A comprehensive pathology insight

Overview

Corona virus disease-2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus-2 (SARS CoV- 2), a highly contagious single stranded RNA virus genetically related to SARS CoV. The lungs are the main organs affected leading to pneumonia and respiratory failure in severe cases that may need mechanical ventilation.

Occasionally patient may present with gastro-intestinal, cardiac and neurologic symptoms with or without lung involvement. Pathologically, the lungs show either mild congestion and alveolar exudation or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with hyaline membrane or histopathology of acute fibrinous organizing pneumonia (AFOP) that parallels disease severity. Other organs like liver and kidneys may be involved secondarily.

Currently the treatment is principally symptomatic and prevention by proper use of personal protective equipment and other measures is crucial to limit the spread. During the pandemic there is paucity of literature on pathological features including pathogenesis, hence in this review we provide the current pathology centred understanding of COVID-19. Furthermore, the pathogenetic pathway is pivotal in the development of therapeutic targets.


Authors
Chandrakumar Shanmugam, Abdul Rafi Mohammed, Swarupa Ravuri, Vishwas Luthra, Narasimhamurthy Rajagopal, Saritha Karre

Journal
Pathology - Research and Practice 216 (2020) 153222



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